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Methodology of Independent Lab Testing

To determine the effectiveness of removing Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), independent testing was conducted on ZeroWater’s 5-Stage filter against multiple brands.

The following findings are the results of these tests. We are including the methodology and the findings here to support the two following claims made in our recent advertisement. “Tap water could contain a lot of dissolved solids and some other filters simply struggle to remove them.” AND Unlike Brita filters 3 stage system, ZeroWater's 5 stage filtration system eliminates virtually all dissolved solids.” 

Within ‘Section 6 Test Results’ you can see the numerous direct comparisons which support the above claims. To help you understand these findings under the “Minimum % Reduction” rows you will find the percentage of TDS which is removed. You will see that the ZeroWater 5-Stage filter consistently outperforms the other brands in removing TDS. As an example of this, lead removal is 99.9% using ZeroWater’s 5-Stage filter compared to 71% for Brita Max.

 

 

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Please find the methodology and result below

1. PURPOSE AND FIELD OF APPLICATION

This protocol is intended to assess the health and hygiene risk related to human consumption of waters compliant with Leg. Decree 31/2001 and subsequent amendments, treated with filter jugs

2. REFERENCE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS

This protocol was drafted taking into consideration the following reference documents:

  • Leg. Decree 31/2001 and subsequent amendments on the "quality of water intended for human consumption"
  • Min. Decree 174/2004 “Regulation concerning materials and objects that can be used in fixed systems for the collection, treatment, adduction and distribution of water intended for human consumption", and subsequent amendments
  • EN 17093:2018 Domestic appliances used for drinking water treatment, not connected to the water supply - Jug water filter systems - Safety and performance requirements labeling and information to be provided
  • Min. Decree 25/2012 on "Technical provisions concerning equipment for the treatment of water intended for human consumption”.
  • EC Reg.1935/04 concerning materials and objects intended to come into contact with food products
  • NSF/ANSI 42
  • NSF/ANSI 53
  • UNI CEI EN ISO/IEC 17025:2018General requirements for the competence of testing and calibration laboratories

3. TERMS, DEFINITIONS AND ACRONYMS

  • Test water
  • Water of known composition with respect to the parameters concerned, used in contact tests to evaluate the effects produced by the use of the filter jug on chemical and microbiological quality.
  • Test water for chemical quality evaluation Challenge water W1 Challenge water W2
  • Test water for the evaluation of organic quality Challenge water W3
  • Inoculation water for the evaluation of microbiological quality Challenge water with E. Coli (micro)
  • LOQ (limit of quantification)
  • Filter cartridge nominal capacity (gal–l)
  • Maximum volume of water that can be treated with a filter cartridge, within which the manufacturer guarantees correct functioning of the device. (20gal.-75 l)
  • Filter jug
  • Filtration device for drinking water, not connected to a water supply, equipped with a filter cartridge and a container used to store the filtered water and dispense it at the time of consumption.
  • Filter cartridge
  • Filter, generally composite and consisting of carbons, resins and/or other materials, used in filter jugs in order to modify the organoleptic properties of the source water, to remove other substances potentially present in traces in the source water and/or carry out bacteriostatic activities; the filter cartridge is characterized by a nominal capacity that defines the maximum volume of water to be filtered.
  • Contact tests
  • Tests aimed at evaluating the effects produced by the use of the filter jug on the chemical and microbiological quality of the treated water. The tests are carried out by leaving a test water in contact with the filter cartridge in the times and methods established by EN 17093:2018; NSF 42-53 Min. Decree 174/2004 and subsequent amendments, in order to simulate, in standardized conditions, the use of the jug by the user.

4. DOCUMENTAL EVALUATION

The laboratory has examined and acquired the documentation accompanying each jug (instructions for use and recommendations), evaluating:

  • Presence and adequacy of the certification of compliance with the safety requirements of EU directives that provide for the CE marking;
  • the presence and completeness of the declaration of conformity of the filter jugs in relation to: Min. Decree 25/2012, Min. Decree 174/2004, Leg. Decree 31/2001 and subsequent amendments, EN 17093:2018; NSF 42-53 and, EC regulation 1935/2004; specifications applicable to the specific purposes for which the equipment is intended.
  • The specific purposes for which the filter jug is intended, the values of the parameters of Leg. Decree 31/2001 and subsequent amendments modified by the treatment applied, the period of use and the performance values guaranteed by the device used will be implemented
    1. The label contains:
    2. Preliminary jug cleaning procedures before first use.
    3. Procedure for activating and positioning the filter cartridge.
    4. Procedure for reactivating the filter cartridge after a period of non-use.
    5. Jug capacity.
    6. Filter cartridge nominal capacity.
    7. Jug temperature and storage conditions during use.
    8. Limitations of use.
    9. The jug is designed for use with drinking water only.
    10. It will be necessary to insert the Batch and the product identification code on the filter and on the jug.
    11. The procedures for disposing of filters and jugs are not described.

5. CONTACT TESTS

5.1. Criteria

  • The procedures described in this protocol for contact testing have been developed taking into account the following criteria:
  • Current regulatory references, with particular regard to EN 17093:2018; NSF 42-53; Decree 31/2001 and subsequent amendments and Min. Decree 25/2012; Min. Decree 174/2004; EC regulation 1935/2004
  • operating procedures provided by the manufacturers of filter jugs currently on the market and/or reasonably practicable by users;
  • Parameters for which, on the basis of available data, changes of potential health and hygiene interest in the quality of the filtered water in the jug have been highlighted or presumed.
  • Acquisition of test data within the time limits set in the reference standard
  • Evaluation of a representative number of filter jugs on the basis of the objectives set by the reference standard

5.2. Evaluation of the effects on the chemical quality of the filtered water

5.2.1. General procedure for the description of SCALAB tests in compliance with EN 17093:2018

The nominal capacity of the commercial filter declared by the manufacturer, i.e. 75 L, has been established as per the standard, filtration intervals of 4/19/38/56/75 L have been set, which correspond to 5/25/50/75/100% of the duration estimated by the manufacturer relevant to the filtering capacity subject to final evaluation.

Based on the foregoing, on 13/16/21/27/31 / December 2021 enrichments were carried out for the following analytical targets under study:

Challenge water W1

  • Aluminum (200 ppb)
  • Copper (3000 ppb)
  • Lead (100ppb)
  • Nickel (80 ppb)
  • pH

Challenge water W2

  • Limestone (300 mg/L)
  • Nitrate (50 mg/L)
  • Hardness(300 mg/L)
  • Chlorine(1 mg/L)

Challenge water W3

  • 2-4-6- TCP (5,0 ppb)
  • Geosmin (0.05 ppb)
  • Chloroform (100 ppb)

The aliquots of filtered liters were subjected to analysis immediately after sampling by the Inorganic, Organic and Metals Chemistry departments of SCALABSERVICE.

The % abatement results are shown in tables 1, 2 and 3 in paragraph 5.2.3.

5.2.2. Sampling plan and procedure for the treated water in the jug

As indicated in § 7.2.5.1 for volatile substances (Chloroform, 2-4-6 TCP Geosmin), the appropriate volume for the test was taken after the first and last filtration of the day (1 and 5 L) and analyzed immediately, in order to avoid losses due to the composition of composite samples or long storage times.

For non-volatile substances, an aliquot of at least 100 ml was taken for each daily filtration to obtain a composite sample with a volume of at least 500 ml, for each day on which sampling was scheduled.

5.2.3. Analytical methods, LOQ indication, and percentage abatement results

Parameter Analytical method LoQ Average minimum percentage reduction UNI 17093 % Abatement Filter 1 % Abatement Filter 2
Aluminum EPA 6020B 2014 0.01 ppb 60 92.8 87.4
Copper EPA 6020B 2014 0.01 ppb 80 99.0 96.7
Lead EPA 6020B 2014 0.01 ppb 90 99.6 97.3
Nickel EPA 6020B 2014 0.01 ppb 75 98.9 96.5
pH APAT CNR IRSA 2060 Man 29

Table 1: Percentage abatement results obtained from Challenge water W1 tests.

Parameter Analytical method Loq Average minimum percentage reduction UNI 17093 % Abatement Filter 1 % Abatement Filter 2
Limestone reduction ANNEX E + APAT CNR IRSA 2040 B Man 29 2003 1 mg/L 30 100 100
Nitrate APAT CNR IRSA 4020 B Man 29 2003 0.1 mg/L 50 95.0 97.5
Hardness APAT CNR IRSA 2040 B Man 29 2003 1 mg/L 30 95.8 97.5
Chlorine UNI EN ISO 7393-2:2018 0.03 mg/L 80 98.2 99.3

Table 2: Percentage abatement results obtained from Challenge water W2 tests.

Parameter Analytical method Loq Average minimum percentage reduction UNI 17093 % Abatement Filter 1 % Abatement Filter 2
2-4-6 TCP EPA 3510C 1996, EPA 8270E 2018 < 0.01 ppb 50 100 100
Geosmin EPA 3510C 1996, EPA 8270E 2018 0.001 ppb 50 100 100
Chloroform EPA 5030C 2003, EPA 8260D 2018 0.01 ppb 90 91.2 91.9

Table 3: Percentage abatement results obtained from Challenge water W3 tests.

It should be noted that the results expressed as a percentage abatement of chloroform were calculated with reference to the concentration value of the addition made on the Challenge water W3 also taking into account the recovery uncertainty. For the other analytes, this uncertainty was deemed negligible. Below are some images in order to describe how the tests are set up.

Figure 1. Test set-up of 12/13/2021

Figure 2: Test set-up of 12/16/2021

Figure 3:Test set-up of 12/21/2021

Figure 4: Test set-up of 12/27/2021

Figure 5: Test set-up of 12/31/2021

Figure 6: Set-up Challenge water W3 Spike TCP

Figure 7: Set-up Challenge water W3 spike Geosmin

Figure 8: Set-up Challenge water W1 spike Aluminum

Figure 9: Set-up Challenge water W1 spike Nickel

Figure 10: Set-up Challenge water W1 Spike Copper

Figure 11: Set-up Challenge water W1 spike Lead

Figure 12: Aliquot composition phase

Figure 13: Aliquots and sub aliquots of the samples to be used for the various analytical methods

5.2.4. General procedure for the description of SCALABSERVICE tests in compliance with NSF 42-53 certification

The "influent Challenge water", prepared in the manner and concentrations provided for by the aforementioned standard and given in table 4, and adjusted in double preparation to pH values equal to 6.5 and 8.5, was passed through each filter (3 filters were tested), at a rate of 1 liter, 45 minutes load/45 minutes rest, and a sample of filtered water was taken from each filter after 25, 50 and 75 L and subjected to analysis immediately.

Based on the foregoing, the tests were carried out between 01 and 08 December 2021, enrichments were carried out for the following analytical targets under study.

Parameter Analytical method LoQ mg/l Influent Challenge water concentration
Lead EPA 6020B 2014 0.1 300 mg/l
Mercury EPA 6020B 2014 0.01 150 mg/l
Chromium IV APAT CNR IRSA 3150 C Man 29 2003 1 6.0 mg/l
PFOS/PFOA EPA 537 2009 0.001 1.5 mg/l
Chlorine UNI EN ISO 7393-2:2018 5 2000mg/l

Table 4: Parameters, methods and initial concentrations of the "influent Challenge water" used.

The results obtained for each filter at the two pH values are shown in the tables below.

Tests carried out at pH 6.5
Filter 2 V1 V2 V3 Overall percent reduction of this study Overall percent reduction of a previous study Maximum effluent Conc Maximum permissible Effluent Conc Regulatory References
Parameter 25L 50L 75L ppb ppb
Cr IV < 1 < 1 <1 100.0 99.6 <1 50 Leg. Decree 31/2001 relating to hexavalent Cr
Pb < 0.1 1.05 2.70 98.8 99.7 2.70 10 Leg. Decree 31/2001
Hg < 0.01 0.30 0.40 94.2 96.7 0.40 1 Leg. Decree 31/2001
PFOS < 0.001 0.03 0.05 97.3 94.9 0.05 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
PFOA < 0.001 0.03 0.04 97.7 94.9 0.04 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
Chlorine <5 <5 <5 100 97.5 <5 200 Leg. Decree 31/2001

Table 5: Results of the test carried out on Filter 2 at pH 6.5.

Filter 3 V1 V2 V3 Overall percent reduction of this study Overall percent reduction of a previous study Maximum effluent Conc Maximum permissible Effluent Conc Regulatory References
Parameter 25L 50L 75L ppb ppb
Cr IV < 1 < 1 < 1 100.0 99.6 <1 50 Leg. Decree 31/2001 relating to hexavalent Cr
Pb < 0.1 1.21 2.93 98.6 99.7 2.93 10 Leg. Decree 31/2001
Hg < 0.01 0.30 0.50 93.3 96.7 0.5 1 Leg. Decree 31/2001
PFOS < 0.001 0.03 0.04 97.6 94.9 0.04 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
PFOA < 0.001 0.03 0.04 97.6 94.9 0.04 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
Chlorine <5 <5 <5 100 97.5 <5 200 Leg. Decree 31/2001

Table 6: Results of the test carried out on Filter 3 at pH 6.5.

Tests carried out at pH 8.5
Filter 1 V1 V2 V3 Overall percent reduction of this study Overall percent reduction of a previous study Maximum effluent Conc Maximum permissible Effluent Conc Regulatory References
Parameter 25L 50L 75L ppb ppb
Cr IV < 1 < 1 <1 100.0 99.6 <1 50 Leg. Decree 31/2001 relating to hexavalent Cr
Pb < 0.1 1.25 1.60 99.1 99.7 1.6 10 Leg. Decree 31/2001
Hg < 0.01 0.20 0.30 95.8 96.7 0.3 1 Leg. Decree 31/2001
PFOS < 0.001 0.03 0.07 96.7 94.9 0.07 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
PFOA < 0.001 <0.001 0.12 96.0 94.9 0.12 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
Chlorine <5 <5 <5 100 97.5 <5 200 Leg. Decree 31/2001

Table 7: Results of the test carried out on Filter 1 at pH 8.5.

Filter 2 V1 V2 V3 Overall percent reduction of this study Overall percent reduction of a previous study Maximum effluent Conc Maximum permissible Effluent Conc Regulatory References
Parameter 25L 50L 75L ppb ppb
Cr IV < 1 < 1 <1 100.0 99.6 <1 50 Leg. Decree 31/2001 relating to hexavalent Cr
Pb < 0.1 <0.1 1.10 99.6 99.7 1.1 10 Leg. Decree 31/2001
Hg < 0.01 0.30 0.30 95.0 96.7 0.3 1 Leg. Decree 31/2001
PFOS < 0.001 0.05 0.06 96.3 94.9 0.06 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
PFOA < 0.001 0.080 0.12 93.3 94.9 0.12 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
Chlorine <5 <5 <5 100.0 97.5 <5 200 Leg. Decree 31/2001

Table 8: Results of the test carried out on Filter 2 at pH 8.5.

Filter 3 V1 V2 V3 Overall percent reduction of this study Overall percent reduction of a previous study Maximum effluent Conc Maximum permissible Effluent Conc Regulatory References
Parameter 25L 50L 75L ppb ppb
Cr VI < 1 < 1 <1 100.0 99.6 <1 50 Leg. Decree 31/2001 relating to hexavalent Cr
Pb < 0.1 0.5 0.80 99.6 99.7 1.1 10 Leg. Decree 31/2001
Hg < 0.01 0.20 0.20 99.7 96.7 0.3 1 Leg. Decree 31/2001
PFOS < 0.001 0.07 0.06 95.7 94.9 0.06 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
PFOA < 0.001 0.04 0.08 96.0 94.9 0.12 0.5 EU Directive 2020/2184
Chlorine <5 <5 <5 100.0 97.5 <5 200 Leg. Decree 31/2001

Table 9: Results of the test carried out on Filter 3 at pH 8.5.

Figure 14: Example of set-up for NSF tests

5.2.5 Tests to evaluate the effects of specific and global migration of jugs

Tests were carried out in accordance with Min. Decree 174/2004 Ministry of Health. Regulation concerning materials and objects that can be used in fixed systems for the collection, treatment, adduction and distribution of water intended for human consumption (Official Gazette G.U. no. 166 dated 17-7-2004), the results of which are shown in the table below.

Min. Decree 174/2004 White Distilled Water Test Jug Sample Regulatory Limits
Global Migration (24h at 40°C) gravimetry in real conditions of use (ANNEX IIIC) <1 mg/Kg 8.0 mg/kg (average of 2 tests) 60 mg/Kg
Specific Dye Migration (24h at 40°C) spectrophotometry in real conditions of use (Min. Decree of March 21, 1973, no. 34, ANNEX IV - SECTION VII - DETECTION OF DYE MIGRATION > 95% > 95 % (average of 2 tests) optical transmission between 400 and 750 nm >95 %
Acrylamide (24h at 40°C) EPA 3535A 2007, EPA 8321B 2007 Table 1 EU Reg. no.10/2011 <0.001 mg/Kg <0.001 mg/Kg 0.05 mg/Kg

Table 10: Specific and global migration test results.

5.3. Evaluation of the effects on the microbiological quality of filtered water

5.3.1. General procedure for the description of SCALAB tests

The test procedure for evaluating the microbiological characteristics of filter jugs, in accordance with UNI EN 17093:2018, consists of two types of verification: determination of the microbiological conditions of an intact filter cartridge and the evaluation of the colonization potential of the water filtration system through the use of bacterial indicators.

5.3.1.1 Test procedure for determining the microbiological conditions of an intact filter cartridge

As provided for in point 7.3.2 of the reference standard, the jug and hopper are cleaned with the use of sterile distilled water. At the end of the cleaning procedure, an intact cartridge from the packaging supplied by the manufacturer is inserted into the filter system and this is tested by passing 1 L of sterile drinking water through the filter. Immediately after the passage of water from the filter, samples are taken to analyze the presence of E. Coli, total coliforms, and enterococci.

5.3.1.2 Test procedure for evaluating the colonization potential of the water filtration system with bacterial indicators.

In order to verify the bacteriological colonization potential of the filtering system, it is operated for the filtering capacity (75 l) and the maximum time (3 weeks) declared by the manufacturer but, at the second week, it is subjected to a challenge test with E. Coli bacteria. In addition, the challenge test is repeated at the end of the maximum time of use (fourth week).

5.3.1.2.1 Sampling plan and procedure for the treated water in the jug
FIRST WEEK

Day I: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayII: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayIII: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayIV: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayV: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

No sampling takes place this week

SECOND WEEK

Day I: Filter 1L of water inoculated with E. Coli bacteria (prepared as in point B5.3)

From here analyze for E. Coli the sample of inoculated water (TW1) and the sample of inoculated water after filtration (MA1). The excess must be left inside the jug until the next day.

DayII: Take the filtrate left standing overnight and analyze for E. Coli (MB1). Filter 3 L of drinking water; from the first 2 L make a composite sample and analyze for E. Coli (MC1). Leave the third liter standing.

DayIII: Take the filtrate left standing overnight. Filter 3 L of drinking water. Make a composite sample from the remaining filtrate and the first 2 L and analyze for E. Coli (MD1). Leave the third liter standing.

DayIV: Take the filtrate left standing overnight. Filter 3 L of drinking water. Make a composite sample from the remaining filtrate and the first 2 L and analyze for E. Coli (ME1). Leave the third liter standing.

Day V: Empty the jug and leave it at room temperature.

Figure 15: How to do challenge tests with E. Coli.

Figure 16: Challenge water for titer control, maintained at the same environmental conditions as the jugs and filters subjected to testing

THIRD WEEK

DayI: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayII: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayIII: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayIV: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

DayV: Filter 7.5 L of drinking water, microbiologically compliant SCA point of use

FOURTH WEEK

Day I: Filter 1L of water inoculated with E. Coli bacteria (prepared as in point B5.3)

From here analyze for E. Coli the sample of inoculated water (TW2) and the sample of inoculated water after filtration (MA2). The excess must be left inside the jug until the next day.

DayII: Take the filtrate left standing overnight and analyze for E. Coli (MB2). Filter 3 L of drinking water; from the first 2 L make a composite sample and analyze for E. Coli (MC2). Leave the third liter standing.

DayIII: Take the filtrate left standing overnight. Filter 3 L of drinking water. Make a composite sample from the remaining filtrate and the first 2 L and analyze for E. Coli (MD2). Leave the third liter standing.

DayIV: Take the filtrate left standing overnight. Filter 3 L of drinking water. Make a composite sample from the remaining filtrate and the first 2 L and analyze for E. Coli (ME2).

It should be noted that the procedure described above was applied simultaneously to two filters.

Parallel to the tests described above and for the days of weeks 2 and 4, it is necessary to evaluate the titer of the inoculated water without nutrients kept in the same temperature conditions in which the test on the jugs is conducted (control samples), and the titer of the Challenge water inoculated and containing nutrients, as described in § 7.3.3.3.2 of the reference standard. The microbial concentration of the latter remained constantly above the initial value (>400 UFC/100ml), whereas the control of the challenge water without nutrients showed microbial growth always under double the initial value; below is a summary table of the controls.

1st Week Date 12/20/2021 (initial value) 12/21/2021 12/22/2021 12/23/2021
CONTROL OF CHALLENGE WATER WITHOUT NUTRIENTS 340 UFC/100ml 320 UFC/100ml 360 UFC/100ml 430 UFC/100ml
CONTROL OF CHALLENGE WATER WITH NUTRIENTS 420 UFC/100ml 580 UFC/100ml 640 UFC/100ml > 700 UFC/100ml
4th Week Date 01/03/2022 (initial value) 01/04/2022 01/05/2022 01/06/2022
CONTROL OF CHALLENGE WATER WITHOUT NUTRIENTS 480 UFC/100ml 500 UFC/100ml 560 UFC/100ml 520 UFC/100ml
CONTROL OF CHALLENGE WATER WITH NUTRIENTS 490 UFC/100ml 600 UFC/100ml > 700 UFC/100ml > 700 UFC/100ml

Table 11: Challenge water control results.

5.3.3. Analytical methods, with indication of uncertainty

TEST PARAMETER TEST METHOD
Escherichia Coli APAT CNR IRSA 7030 F Man 29 2003
Total coliforms APAT CNR IRSA 7010 C Man 29 2003
Enterococci APAT CNR IRSA 7040 C Man 29 2003

5.3.4. Calculation and expression of results

All the results obtained refer to UFC/100ml

The results are detailed below:

SUM OF DAILY DETERMINATIONS (MB+MC+MD+ME) TWICE THE CHALLENGE WATER VALUE RESULT
1st Week Filter 1 228 UFC/100ml 692 UFC/100ml Compliant
Filter 2 4 UFC/100ml 800 UFC/100ml Compliant
4th Week Filter 1 81 UFC/100ml 440 UFC/100ml Compliant
Filter 2 9 UFC/100ml 280 UFC/100ml Compliant
TEST RESULTEVALUATION CRITERIA (§7.3.3.5 of UNI EN ISO 17093)No colonization of the filter in the water filtration system occurs if the sum of UFC of E. Coli/100ml of the daily determinations (MB+MC+MD+ME) is not greater than twice the UFC value of E. Coli/100ml in the inoculated challenge test water (TW)

Table 12: Results of microbiological tests carried out in the weeks of contamination.

The nutrient-free titer control sample which was exposed to the same environmental conditions as the test maintained a constant level of microbial proliferation for the entire duration of the test (> 300 UFC/ml).

Figure 17: Growth in plate of the E. Coli bacterial indicator used for the Challenge water in the different samplings of the fourth week

­­­

6. TEST RESULTS

6.1. METALS (Ph = 6.5 ~ Total Volume: 5 Gallon)

Parameter Tested Inffluent Conc. in ppb Zero Water Brita Maxtra PUR FM Aquaphor
Aluminum (EPA) 228 <1 51.2 58.5 16.5
Minimum % Reduction: Not Specified 99.9+% 77.5% 74.3% 92.8%
Antimony (EPA) 6.1 <1 <1 <1 <1
Minimum % Reduction: 66.7% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+%
Arsenic (+3) 301 <1 10.2 5.9 8.9
Minimum % Reduction: 96.7% 99.9+% 99.9+% 98.0% 97.0%
Cadmium 30.8 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <1
Minimum % Reduction: 83.3% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+%
Chromium (+3) 330 <1 28.5 35.9 2.5
Minimum % Reduction: 66.7% 99.9+% 91.4% 89.1% 99.2%
Copper 3020 <1 422.0 <1 6.7
Minimum % Reduction: 56.7% 99.9+% 86.0% 99.9+% 1.0
Iron 3021 <1 294.6 18.7 139.0
Minimum % Reduction: 90.0% 99.9+% 90.2% 99.4% 95.4%
Lead 158 <1.0 45.8 <1.0 5.1
Minimum % Reduction: Not Specified 99.9+% 71.0% 99.9+% 9677.2%
Manganese 1101 <1 <1 <1 5.4
Minimum % Reduction: 95.0% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 1.0
Mercury 6.1 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: 66.7% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+%
Nickel (EPA) 110 <1 64.7 <1 <1
Minimum % Reduction: Not Specified 99.9+% 41.2% 99.9+% 99.9+%
Selenium 102 <1 <1 <1 13.3
Minimum % Reduction: 50.0% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 0.9
Silver (EPA) 135 <1 <1 <1 <1
Minimum % Reduction: Not Specified 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+%
Thalium (EPA) 6.0 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <1
Minimum % Reduction: 66.7% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.9+%
Total 8555 <1 921.6 122.6 301

6.2. INORGANIC NON-METAL (Total Volume: 5 Gallon)

Parameter Tested Inffluent Conc. In mg/L Zero Water PUR FM Brita Maxtra Aquaphor
Residual Chlorine 2.00 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 0.03
Minimum % Reduction: ≥50.0%   99.9% 99.9% 99.9% 99.9%
Chloride 885 1.1 765 630 800
Minimum % Reduction: ≥68.9%   99.9% 13.6% 28.8% 9.6%
Fluoride 9.02 0.05 7.79 7.8 7.98
Minimum % Reduction: ≥81.3%   99.4% 13.6% 13.5% 11.5%
Nitrate 27.0 <0.5 27.0 26.8 21
Minimum % Reduction: ≥63.0%   99.9% 0.0% 0.7% 22.2%
Nitrite 3.0 <0.5 2.0 1.3 3.0
Minimum % Reduction: ≥66.7%   99.9% 33.3% 56.7% 0.0%
pH 7.20-7.40 7.40 7.40 6.75 6.85
Acceptable range: 6.5 to 8.5          
Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 1290 0.48 1244 1140 940
Minimum % Reduction: ≥66.6%   99.9+% 3.6% 11.6% 27.1%

6.3. HERBICIDES/CHLORINATED ACIDS (Total Volume: 5 Gallon)

TDS tested with a Hanna Conducivity Meter.

Herbicide Parameters Inffluent Conc. in ppb Zero Water PUR FM Brita Maxtra Aquaphor
2,4-D 199.68 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Pentachlorophenol 14.71 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
2,4,5-TP (Silvex) 178.91 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
2,4,5-T 152.38 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
2,4-DB 50.00 1.46 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   97.1% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Dinosep 21.05 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Hexachloropendiene 150.43 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
DCPA 52.23 <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb <0.5 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Total 819.39 1.46 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5

6.4. PESTICIDES (Total Volume: 5 Gallon)

Pesticide Parameters Inffluent Conc.in ppb Zero Water PUR FM Brita Maxtra Aquaphor
Lindane 2.36 2.24 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   5.1% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Heptachlor 82.97 0.77 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.1% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Aldrin 9.44 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Atrazine 9.45 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >97%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Heptachlor Epoxide 4.25 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Chlordane 60.91 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Endrin 6.14 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Simazine 11.89 0.36 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >97%   97.0% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%
Metoxychlor 121.88 <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb <0.2 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   99.99% 99.99% 99.99% 99.99%

6.5. PFOA/PERFLUOOOCTANOIC ACIDS (Total Volume: 5 Gallon)

PFOA Parameters Inffluent Conc. in ppb ZeroWater PUR FM Brita Maxtra Aquaphor
Perfluoroctanoic Acid 2.05 <0.02 ppb <0.02 ppb <0.02 ppb <0.05 ppb
Minimum % Reduction: >99%   >99.0% >99.0% >99.0% >99.9%

6.6. VOC/EPA (Total Volume: 5 Gallon)

Parameter Tested Inffluent Conc. in ppb ZeroWater PUR FM Brita Maxtra Aquaphor
Chloromethane 1.64 <0.5 <0.5 0.66 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.99% 59.8% 99.9+%
Vinychloride 5.00 1.31 <0.5 2.81 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 73.8% 99.9+% 43.8% 99.9+%
Bromomethane 11.28 2.59 <0.5 5.82 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 77.0% 99.9+% 48.4% 99.9+%
Chloroethane 1.60 <0.5 <0.5 1.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 25.0% 99.9+%
Flourotrichloromethane 0.10 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
1, 1-Dichloroethene 83.20 4.81 <0.5 3.54 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 94.2% 99.9+% 95.7% 99.9+%
Methylene Chloride 22.46 5.10 <0.5 0.9 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 77.3% 99.9+% 96.0% 99.9+%
trans-1, 2-Dichloroethene 86.30 1.80 <0.5 5.02 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 97.9% 99.9+% 94.2% 99.9+%
MTBE 77.34 3.53 <0.5 4.23 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 95.4% 99.9+% 94.5% 99.9+%
1, 1-Dichloroethane 18.84 3.57 <0.5 6.58 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 81.1% 99.9+% 65.1% 99.9+%
cis-1, 2-Dichloroethene 170.20 2.36 <0.5 5.85 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 98.6% 99.9+% 96.6% 99.9+%
2, 2-Dichloropropane 10.25 2.19 <0.5 5.8 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 78.6% 99.9+% 43.4% 99.9+%
Bromochloromethane 25.93 5.27 <0.5 1.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 79.7% 99.9+% 95.4% 99.9+%
Chloroform 75.40 7.82 <0.5 2.1 4.28
Minimum % Reduction: >95% 89.6% 99.9+% 97.2% 94.3%
Carbon Tetrachloride 78.50 0.91 <0.5 3.56 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 98.8% 99.9+% 95.5% 99.9+%
1, 1, 1-Trichloroethane 84.20 2.64 <0.5 6.35 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 96.9% 99.9+% 92.5% 99.9+%
1, 1-Dichloropropane 8.86 1.25 <0.5 4.58 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 85.9% 99.9+% 48.3% 99.9+%
Benzene 81.50 1.34 <0.5 3.69 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 98.4% 99.9+% 95.5% 99.9+%
1, 2-Dichloroethane 88.25 4.20 <0.5 10.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 95.2% 99.9+% 88.4% 99.9+%
Trichloroethene 180.00 5.82 <0.5 5.3 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 96.8% 99.9+% 97.1% 99.9+%
Dibromomethane 25.73 5.05 <0.5 1.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 80.4% 99.9+% 94.2% 99.9+%
1, 2-Dichloropropane 80.10 2.58 <0.5 7.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 96.8% 99.9+% 90.6% 99.9+%
Bromodichloromethane 75.00 8.70 <0.5 6.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >95% 88.4% 99.9+% 91.3% 99.9+%
cis-1, 3-Dichloropropene 79.50 2.68 <0.5 9.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 96.6% 99.9+% 88.4% 99.9+%
Toluene 78.30 1.51 <0.5 3.9 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 98.1% 99.9+% 95.0% 99.9+%
trans-1, 3-Dicloropropene 20.32 2.74 <0.5 9.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 86.5% 99.9+% 53.2% 99.9+%
Tetrachloroethene 81.60 2.12 <0.5 4.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 97.4% 99.9+% 94.9% 99.9+%
1, 1, 2-Trichloroethane 20.16 <0.5 <0.5 10.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 49.4% 99.9+%
Chlorodibromomethane 75.30 4.17 <0.5 6.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >95% 94.5% 99.9+% 91.8% 99.9+%
1, 3-Dichloropropane 21.24 3.60 <0.5 10.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 83.1% 99.9+% 50.6% 99.9+%
Ethylene Dibromide (EDB) 44.80 <0.2 <0.2 5.4 <0.2
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 87.9% 99.9+%
Ethylbenzene 88.20 0.78 <0.5 5.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.1% 99.9+% 94.1% 99.9+%
Chlorobenzene 77.20 0.64 <0.5 4.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.2% 99.9+% 94.6% 99.9+%
m and p-Xylene 46.33 0.52 <0.5 2.1 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 98.9% 99.9+% 95.5% 99.9+%
o-Xylene 23.20 0.58 <0.5 4.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 97.5% 99.9+% 81.9% 99.9+%
Styrene 150.40 0.59 <0.5 3.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.6% 99.9+% 97.9% 99.9+%
Bromoform 75.90 1.12 <0.5 7.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >95% 98.5% 99.9+% 90.1% 99.9+%
Isopropylbenzene 6.78 <0.5 <0.5 3.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 52.8% 99.9+%
n-propylbenzene 9.37 <0.5 <0.5 3.9 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 58.4% 99.9+%
Bromobenzene 12.58 <0.5 <0.5 5.4 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 57.1% 99.9+%
1, 1, 2, 2-Tetrachloroethane 81.20 <0.5 <0.5 1.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 98.5% 99.9+%
1, 3, 5-Trimethylbenzene 9.40 <0.5 <0.5 3.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 62.8% 99.9+%
2-Chlorotoluene 10.08 <0.5 <0.5 4.1 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 59.3% 99.9+%
1, 2, 3-Trichloropropane (TCP) 18.21 <0.5 <0.5 10.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 44.0% 99.9+%
4-Chlorotoluene 10.95 <0.5 <0.5 4.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 58.9% 99.9+%
Tert-Butylbenzene 10.14 <0.5 <0.5 4.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 58.6% 99.9+%
1, 2, 4-Trimethylbenzene 9.69 <0.5 <0.5 3.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 63.9% 99.9+%
sec-Butylbenzene 7.84 <0.5 <0.5 2.1 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 73.2% 99.9+%
4-Isopropyltoluene 10.37 <0.5 <0.5 3.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 66.2% 99.9+%
1, 3-Dichlorobenzene 40.20 <0.5 <0.5 4.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 89.6% 99.9+%
1, 4-Dichlorobenzene 40.20 <0.5 <0.5 3.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 91.3% 99.9+%
n-Butylbenzene 10.50 <0.5 <0.5 3.2 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 69.5% 99.9+%
1, 2-Dichlorobenzene 80.30 <0.5 <0.5 4.8 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 94.0% 99.9+%
1, 2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane 52.40 <0.5 <0.5 4.6 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 91.2% 99.9+%
Hexachlorobutadiene 44.90 <0.5 <0.5 2.9 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 93.5% 99.9+%
1, 2, 4-Trichlorobenzene 13.59 <0.5 <0.5 4.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 66.9% 99.9+%
Naphthalene 160.90 <0.5 <0.5 4.9 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 97.0% 99.9+%
1, 2, 3-Trichlorobenzene 14.22 <0.5 <0.5 4.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 68.4% 99.9+%
Bromoacetonitrile 22.50 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
Dibromoacetonitrile 24.60 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5 <0.5
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
Dichloroacetonitrile 9.60 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2 <0.2
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
Trichloroacetonitrile 15.00 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
1,1-Dichloro-2-propanone 7.20 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1 <0.1
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
1,1,1-Trichloro-2-propanone 8.20 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3 <0.3
Minimum % Reduction: >99% 99.9+% 99.9+% 99.99% 99.9+%
Total 2915.1 123.2 1.0 318.1 5.2

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