Does ZeroWater Reduce Antimony?
YES! When tested in accordance with the NSF's protocol based on a 40 gallon filtration (double the rated usage), ZeroWater removes 97% of Antimony from your tap water.
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How does Antimony get into your water?
Antimony is a lustrous, machinable metal which exists in nature only in ores containing mixtures of elements. Antimony (Sb) is a metal that is therefore present naturally in small quantities in water, rocks, and soils.
A British geological survey can be seen here.
In groundwater, sources of Antimony also include plumbing materials, mining waste, manufacturing effluent, leaching of fertilizers, leaching of landfills, and fossil fuel combustion products.
Pure Antimony is a white metal which breaks or snaps easily. It is stable under normal conditions, is not easily corroded by air or water and does not conduct electricity or heat well.
Antimony has properties typical of both metals and non-metals and is therefore referred to as a "metalloid".
Antimony is usually found in combination with other substances - it combines with a variety of other elements to form many useful chemicals.
Man-made releases of Antimony occur to air and water from waste incinerators, metal processing works, mines and industrial facilities burning coal.
In urban areas, the main sources are fumes from the burning of oil fuels (especially vehicle exhaust gases) and dusts from industry.
Antimony is also released naturally from the earth's crust and so is found (usually at relatively low concentrations) in soils, natural water bodies and sediments.
The Health Implications of Antimony
The Daily Express reported that “a poison as harmful as Arsenic is contaminating fruit juices and cordials drunk by millions of people every day across Britain”.
The newspaper said that the toxic chemical Antimony was discovered in 16 popular brands of juice and squash.
"The EC, US EPA, and the WHO are reported to have set differing guidelines for what level of Antimony are permissible in drinking water, ranging from 5 microgrammes per litre to 20 microgrammes per litre. Reportedly, no threshold levels have been set for antimony in foodstuffs."
Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality and Antimony can best be explained as follows.
Antimony can enter the body by:
- inhalation of air containing Antimony
- by ingestion of food or water containing Antimony
- by dermal contact with Antimony
Inhalation of air containing Antimony can result in:
- eye and lung irritation
- heart and lung damage
- stomach pains
- stomach ulcers
Ingestion of large doses of antimony may cause vomiting, but very little further information is known on the effects of ingesting antimony. Dermal contact with antimony can cause skin irritation if contact is prolonged. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has not classified antimony in terms of its carcinogenicity to humans. However, exposure to antimony at normal background levels is unlikely to have any adverse effect on human health.
Maximum Acceptable Concentrations (MAC) are based upon potential adverse health effects but water test results that exceed these levels do not necessarily indicate any immediate health problem.
This is because wherever possible MAC's are developed to be low enough that years of exposure at this level would only increase the health risk slightly.
However, corrective actions should be taken if water test results exceed the MAC in order to remove any potential for increased health risk.
Aesthetic Objectives (AO) are not based upon health effects, but water test results that exceed these levels may indicate that the water could have objectionable taste, odour, appearance or other factors.
Corrective actions are recommended if water test results exceed the AO but may not be necessary.
Short-term exposure (over days or weeks) to Antimony in drinking water at very high concentrations (above 30 mg/L) can cause:
The risk to human health is through ingestion only – drinking, cooking, teeth brushing.
Well water with Antimony levels greater than 0.006 mg/L may safely be used for bathing, handwashing, and dishwashing.
Maximum Acceptable Concentration for Drinking Water = 0.006 mg/L.
In water, Antimony has no taste, smell, or colour. It can only be detected through a chemical test.
The Scottish Drinking Water Quality Guideline for Antimony read as follows:
SPRI Emission Reporting Threshold 1.00 Kg/yr
Pollutant Emissions to Air is 0.006 milligrams per litre (mg/L)
How are the ZeroWater filters tested?
Test results as performed by 3rd party laboratory is based on NSF/ANSI testing protocol of pour through devices for contaminants listed under the National Primary Drinking Water Standards.
Contaminants were tested at the average Influent Challenge Concentration levels as established under testing protocols by contaminant type. Results shown are based on a 40 gallon filtration, double the rated usage to ensure consumer safety.
These results are calculated from an average of two pH's (6.5pH and 8.5pH) * Indicates NSF Certified Contaminant reduction percentages for ZeroWater. These results are calculated from an average of two pH's (6.5pH and 8.5pH) Testing performed Quality Filter Testing Laboratory, LLC located in Wilmington, DE. Quality Filter Testing Laboratory, LLC is an independent ISO 17025 laboratory certified by WQA and IAPMO to test water filters as per NSF/ANSI Std 42, 53, 58, 401, 473, P231.